semver 0.12.0



SELECT '1.2.1'::semver;

SELECT '1.2.0'::semver > '1.2.0b1'::semver;


This library contains a single PostgreSQL extension, a semantic version data type called semver. It's an implementation of the version number format specified by the Semantic Versioning 2.0.0 Specification.

The two important points describing the structure of a semantic version and how two versions compare are these, from the spec:

  1. A normal version number MUST take the form X.Y.Z where X, Y, and Z are non-negative integers, and MUST NOT contain leading zeroes. X is the major version, Y is the minor version, and Z is the patch version. Each element MUST increase numerically. For instance: 1.9.0 -> 1.10.0 -> 1.11.0.

  2. A pre-release version MAY be denoted by appending a hyphen and a series of dot separated identifiers immediately following the patch version. Identifiers MUST comprise only ASCII alphanumerics and hyphen [0-9A-Za-z-]. Identifiers MUST NOT be empty. Numeric identifiers MUST NOT include leading zeroes. Pre-release versions have a lower precedence than the associated normal version. A pre-release version indicates that the version is unstable and might not satisfy the intended compatibility requirements as denoted by its associated normal version. Examples: 1.0.0-alpha, 1.0.0-alpha.1, 1.0.0-0.3.7, 1.0.0-x.7.z.92.


Use like any other data type. Here's an example in a table:

CREATE TABLE extensions (
    name        TEXT,
    version     SEMVER,
    description TEXT,
    PRIMARY KEY (name, version)

The type can be in indexed using btree or hash indexes:

CREATE INDEX idx_extension_version ON extensions(version);
CREATE INDEX hdx_extension_version ON extensions USING hash (version);

Hash indexes aren't worth much, but the functionality is there to support hash aggregates in query optimizations.

And some sample usage:

INSERT INTO extensions
VALUES ('pgtap', '0.35.0',    'PostgreSQL unit testing'),
       ('pgtap', '0.35.0-b1', 'PostgreSQL unit testing.'),
       ('pair',  '0.1.0',     'Key/value pair data type'),
       ('PostGIS', '1.5.0',   'Gelocation data types');

SELECT * FROM extensions WHERE VERSION = '1.5.0';
  name   │ version │      description
 PostGIS │ 1.5.0   │ Gelocation data types

SELECT * FROM extensions WHERE VERSION < '0.35.0';
 name  │ version   │       description
 pgtap │ 0.35.0-b1 │ PostgreSQL unit testing.
 pair  │ 0.1.0     │ Key/value pair data type

Note that "0.35.0-b1" is less than "0.35.0", as required by the specification. Use ORDER BY to get more of a feel for semantic version ordering rules:

SELECT version FROM extensions ORDER BY version;

SELECT version FROM extensions ORDER BY version DESC;



Operator Description Example Result
= Are semvers equivalent '1.2.0'semver = '1.2.00'::semver t
<> Are semvers different '1.2.0'semver <> '1.2.00'::semver f
< Is semver less than right semver '3.4.0-b1'semver < '3.4.0'::semver t
<= Is semver less than or equal to semver '3.4.0-b1'semver <= '3.4.0'::semver t
> Is semver greater than right semver '3.4.0-b1'semver > '3.4.0'::semver f
>= Is semver greater than or equal to semver '3.4.0-b1'semver >= '3.4.0'::semver f


Function Description Example Result
to_semver(text) Parse semver from text to_semver('1.02') 1.2.0
is_semver(text) Test semver text is_semver('1.02') true
semver(text) Cast text to semver semver('1.2.1') 1.2.1
semver(numeric) Cast numeric to semver semver(1.2) 1.2.0
semver(real) Cast real to semver semver(12.0::real) 12.0.0
semver(double precision) Cast double precision to semver semver(9.2::double precision) 9.2.0
semver(integer) Cast integer to semver semver(42::integer) 42.0.0
semver(bigint) Cast bigint to semver semver(19::bigint) 19.0.0
semver(smallint) Cast smallint to semver semver(2::smallint) 2.0.0
text(semver) Cast semver to text text('1.2.54'::semver) 1.2.54

Numeric casts simply extract an integer from the decimal portion, so that 1.20 and 1.02 would both be parsed as 1.2.0.

The difference between semver() and to_semver() is that the former requires a valid semver format, while the latter is a bit more permissive, doing its best to convert other version number formats (including the older semver 1.0.0-beta prerelease format) to semantic versions:

# select to_semver('1.0');
(1 row)

# select to_semver('1.0beta1');
(1 row)

As for is_semver(), it returns true for a valid semver format, and false for anything else, including formats that semver() would convert to valid semvers. In other words, its interpretation of validity is strict.

Aggregate Functions

The examples assume the values inserted into the extensions table in the above examples.

Function Return Type Description Example Result
MIN(semver) semver Return the lowest semver SELECT MIN(version) FROM extensions; 0.1.0
MAX(semver) semver Return the highest semver SELECT MAX(version) FROM extensions; 1.5.0


From To Example Result
text semver '1.2.1'::semver 1.2.1
numeric semver 1.2::semver 1.2.0
real semver 12.0::real::semver 12.0.0
double precision semver 9.2::double precision::semver 9.2.0
integer semver 42::integer::semver 42.0.0
bigint semver 19::bigint::semver 19.0.0
smallint semver 2::smallint::semver 2.0.0
semver text '1.2.54'::semver::text 1.2.54

Note that numeric casts simply extract an integer from the decimal portion, so that 1.20 and 1.02 would both be parsed as 1.2.0.


This library is stored in an open GitHub repository. Feel free to fork and contribute! Please file bug reports via GitHub Issues.


Copyright and License

Copyright (c) 2010-2016 David E. Wheeler and Sam Vilain.

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the PostgreSQL License.

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose, without fee, and without a written agreement is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph and the following two paragraphs appear in all copies.

In no event shall David E. Wheeler or Sam Vilain be liable to any party for direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages, including lost profits, arising out of the use of this software and its documentation, even if David E. Wheeler or Sam Vilain has been advised of the possibility of such damage.

David E. Wheeler and Sam Vilain specifically disclaim any warranties, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The software provided hereunder is on an "as is" basis, and David E. Wheeler and Sam Vilain have no obligations to provide maintenance, support, updates, enhancements, or modifications.